Glossary

1/1
Designation of one color front/one color back on any print job; correspondingly 2/2 indicates two colors front/two colors back, and so forth.

4/4
Designation of four colors front/four colors back on any print job; correspondingly 2/2 indicates two colors front/two colors back, and so forth.

A/D Converter
Device or Software to convert an analog signal to a digital signal.

AA
Abbreviation for Author’s Alterations

Absorption
In paper, the property which causes it to take up liquids or vapors in contact with it. In optics, the partial suppression of light through a transparent or translucent material.

Accordion Fold
A term used for two or more parallel folds which open like an accordion fold

Acrobat
System developed by Adobe for creating, reading and annotating documents in PDF (portable document format).

Additive Primaries
In Color Reproduction, Red, Green and Blue(RGB). When lights of these colors are added together, they produce the sensation of white light.

Additive Primary Colors
Red, blue and green; the primaries used in computer displays. All colors that can be displayed on a computer monitor are combinations of red, blue and green light emitted by phosphors coated on the inside of the tube.

Additives
Compounds that control such ink characteristics as tack, workability and drying time.

Address Service Requested
One of four ancillary service endorsements, this instructs the Postal Service to forward priority, first class and standard mail at no charge for the first 12 months. In addition, an address notification is provided to the sender. There is a charge for the address notification.

Against The Grain
Folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain direction of the paper. Also, called Crossgrain.

Airbrush
In artwork, a small pressure gun shaped like a pencil that sprays watercolor pigment. Used to correct and obtain tone or graduated tone effects. In platemaking, used with an abrasive-like pumice to remove spots or other unwanted areas. In electronic imaging, a retouching technique.

Alkaline Paper
Paper made up of a synthetic alkaline size and an alkaline filler like calcium carbonate which gives the paper over four times the life(200 years) of acid-sized papers (40-50 years)

Amplitude Modulation
Halftome Screening, as opposed to FM screening, has dots of variable size with equal spacing between dot centers.

Analog Color Proof
Off-press color proof made from seperation films.

Analog Computer
A computer that solves a problem by using analogs, like voltage or denisty, of the variables in the problem.

Ancillary Service Endorsements
Four basic phrases that can be printed on the address side of your mailpiece to give the Postal Service specific instructions for how to handle your mail if it is undeliverable as addressed. These include Address Service Requested, Return Service Requested, Forward Service Requested and Change Service Requested. The endorsements are the same for all classes of mail, but the treatment and cost differ by class of mail.

Anilox Inking
In flexography, two-roll inking systemwith a smooth fountain roll that transfers ink to an etched metal or ceramic-coated metal roll with cells of fixed size and depth that transfer the ink to the plate. Also, used in keyless offset.

Announcements
Announcements are used for commercial and social occasions. Commercial announcements are usually supplied with a single gummed envelope. Social announcements are typically supplied with an inside ungummed envelope and an outside gummed envelope.

Anti-halation Backing
Coating applied to the back of film to prevent halation.

Anti-offest or Setoff spray
Dry Spray of powdered starch used on press to prevent wet ink from transferring from the top of one sheet to the bottom of the next sheet.

Antique Finish
A term describing the surface, usually on book and cover papers, that have a natural rough finish.

Aperture
Lens opening or lens stop expressed as an f/no. such as f/22

Apochromatic
Color corrected lenses which focus the three colors red, green and blue, in the same plane.

Aqueous Coating
In-line flood coat of a water-soluble liquid applied to a sheet of coated paper after it has been printed. Enhances the printed images and resists fingerprints. Also enables the sheet to be handled immediately because the coating dries instantaneously. Available in gloss and satin finishes.

Argon Laser
A strong blue laser that peaks at 470 nano meters.

Art
All illustration copy used in preparing a job for printing.

Ascender
That part of a lower-case letter which rises above the main body , as in “b”.

ASCII
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Files saved in ASCII format contain text without any formatting.

Automatic Picture Replacement
The replacement of a low resolution image by a high resolution image.

Automatic Processor
In Photography, a machine to automatically develop, fix, wash and dry exposed photographic film. In Platemaking, a machine to develop, rinse, gum and dry printing plates.

Backbone
The back of a bound book connecting the two covers; also called spine.

Backing Up
Printing the back, or reverse side, of a sheet hat has already been printed on one side.

Bad Break
In composition, starting a page or ending a paragraph with a single word, or widow.

Barcode
A series of vertical bars and spaces that represents any numerical series, most often a correct zip code for the delivery address on a mailpiece. The barcode facilitates automated processing by barcode readers and scanners

Basic Size
The sheet size of a each paper type that is used to determine its basis weight; for example, basic size for book paper is 25 x 38, bristol is 22.5 x 28.5, cover is 20 x 26 and the basic size for writing paper is 17 x 22 inches.

Basis Weight
The weight in pounds of one ream (500 sheets) of a particular paper type that has been cut to its basic sheet size.

Bearers
In presses, the flat surfaces or rings at the ends of cylinders that come in contact with each other during printing and serve as a basis for determining packing thickness

Beta Site
A test site for computer software or systems.

Bezier Curve
The description of a character, symbol or graphic by its outline used by drawing programs to define shapes.

Bimetal Plate
In lithography, a plate used for long runs in which the printing image base is usually copper and the non-printing area is aluminum, stainless steel or chromium.

Bimetal Plate
In lithography, a plate used for long runs in which the printing image base is usually copper and the non-printing area is aluminum, stainless steel or chromium.

Binding
The fastening together of papers to create a book or brochure. The most common style of binding are case, mechanical, perfect, saddle stitched and side stitched.

Bit
The basic unit of of digital information.

Bitmap
In computer imaging, the electronic representation of a page, indicating thr position of every spot(zero or one).

Black & White
Originals or reproductions in a single color as distinguished from multicolor.

Blanket
Intermediate surface used in offset printing to transfer ink from plate to paper.

Bleed
Bleed is extra art that extends beyond your finished size. Bleeds must extend at least 0.125 inches past the intended cut line to allow for slight misregistration in cutting or finishing.

Blind Embossing
An embossed (raised) image presented without the use of ink or foil.

Blind Image
An image that has lost its ink receptivity and fails to print.

Blowup
An image enlargement

Body
In Inking, a term refering to the viscosity, or consistency, of an ink.

Body Type
A type used for the main part or text of a printed piece, as distingushed from the heading.

Bold Face Type
A name given to type that is heavier than the text type with which it is used.

Bond Paper
Standard uncoated sheet in 17 x 22 inch basis size.

Book Paper
Standard coated or uncoated sheet for book printing in 25 x 38 inch basic size. This classification includes offset and opaque sheets.

BPI
Bits Per Inch

BPS
Bits Per Second

Break for Color
To seperate the parts to be printed in different colors

Brightness
The percentage of light in a narrow spectral range reflected from the surface of a sheet of paper. Brightness is not necessarily related to the whiteness of a sheet, but refers to the amount of light reflected back to the viewer. Bright sheets illuminate transparent inks and provide cleaner, crisper colors.

Bristol
A heavyweight paper made to a caliper of .006″ or higher. Bristol is generally less expensive and lower quality than cover. The basic size for bristol is 22.5 x 28.5.

Brochure
A pamphlet bound in Booklet form

Bronzing
Printing with a sizing ink, then applying bronze powder while still set to produce a metallic lustre.

Bulk
Paper thickness.

Bump Exposure
An exposure in halftone photography, especially with contact screens, in which the screen is removed for a short time. It increases highlight contrast and drops out the dots in the whites.

Burn
A common term used for a plate exposure.

Business Reply Envelope (BRE)
An postage-paid envelope included in a mailing. A BRE carries a business reply permit number. Postage due on a BRE is paid by the permit holder only if the envelope is used. A business reply permit number is different from a mailing permit number and requires a separate application.

Byte
A unit of digital information, equivalent to one character.

Calender Rolls
A set or stack of horizonal cast-steel rolls with polished ground surfaces at the end of a paper machine. The paper is passed between the rolls to increase the smoothness and gloss of it’s surface.

Calendered Paper
Paper that is pressed between steel rollers during manufacture to increase smoothness and reduce porosity.

Caliper
A measure of paper thickness expressed in units of a thousandth of an inch. Caliper is an important indication of a sheet’s uniformity, which is important for consistency on the press and in the bindery.

Camera Ready
Copy which is ready for photography

Caps and Small Cap
Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type, Commonly used in most Roman typefaces

Carrier Envelope
The outside envelope on which the mailing address is written.

Case
The covers of a hard bound book

Cast Coated
Coated paper dried under pressure against a polished drum to produce a high-gloss enamel finish.

Chalking
A term which refers ti improper drying of ink . Pigment dusts off because the vehicle has been absorbed too rapidly into the paper.

Change Service Requested
One of four ancillary service endorsements, this instructs the Postal Service to provide the sender a notice of new address or reason for nondelivery. The mailpiece is disposed by the Postal Service. There is a minimum charge of $0.20 per piece.

Character Generation
The production of of typographic images using font master data. Generated to screens or output devices.

Charge Coupled Device CCD
A semiconductor light sensitive electronic device that emits an electrical signal proportional to the amount of light striking it. Used in scanners and video cameras.

Chemical Pulp
Treatment of groundwood chips with chemicals to remove impurities such as ligin, resins and gums. There are two types, sulfite and sulfate.

Chemistry
A term used to describe the composition of processing solutions.

Chokes and Spreads
Overlap of overprinting images to avoid color or white fringes or borders around image detail. Called Trapping in digital systems.

CIE Color Spaces
These are three dimensional color mapping systems such as CIELab, CIELUV and CIEL “a”b” which are used to plot the three color attributes X,Y,Z.

Closed Loop Systems
A completely automatic control system.

CMY(Cyan, Magenta, Yellow)
Subtractive Primary Colors, each of which is a combination of two additive primary colors(RGB)

CMYK
Cyan, magenta, yellow and black�the four printing colors. In printing, the order of the letters may imply the printing sequence in 4-color work. Thus, KCMY may be used to indicate that the first ink printed is black, followed by cyan, magenta and yellow.

Coated Paper
Paper having a surface coating which produces a smooth finish. Sufraces vary from eggshell to glossy .

Coating
Combination of binders and pigments applied to coated paper that defines the color and creates the printing surface.

Cold Color
A color with a bluish cast.

Cold Type
Preparation of any printing form intended to be reproduced photographically. The term is seldom used today since virtually all type is cold type.

Collate
The gathering of sheets and signature

Collotype
A screenless printing process of the photographic ink-water type in which the plates are coated with bichromated gelatin, exposed to continous tone negatives, and printed on lithographic presses with special dampening.

Color Balance
The correct combination of cyan, magenta, and yellow to reproduce a photograph without a color cast.

Color Correction
Any method such as masking, dot-etching, re-etching and scanning, used to improve color rendition.

Color Electronic Prepress System (CEPS)
A high end computer based system that is used to color correct scanner images and assemble image elements into final pages. They are device dependent systems.

Color Filter
A sheet of dyed glass,gelatin or plastic or dyed gelatin cemeted between glass plates, used in photography to asorb certain colors and transmit others.The filters used for color seperation are red, green and blue.

Color Keys
Off-press overlay color proofs using 3M Color Key Materials

Color Seperation
The process of seperating color originals ito the primary printing color components in negative or postive form using RGB Filters

Colorimeter
An instrument for measuring color the way the eye sees color.

Commercial Register
Color printing on which the misregister allowable is within plus or minus one row of dots.

Commingled Mailing
Combined Mailing of magazines of the same size to the same address to save costs.

Common Impression Cylinder Press
A press with a number of pressing units around a large impression cylinder.

Comp
Rough color proof of a final printed piece.

Compact Disc Read Only Memory CDROM
A laser encoded optical storage device that can store 650 to 1000 megabytes of data on a 5 inch disc.

composite black
Black produced by overprint of cyan, magenta and yellow. Also called �rich black�.

Computer To Plate
Computer to Plate systems or platesetter eliminate the need for having a seperate film-to-plate exposure system.

Computer To Plate
Computer-To-Plate systems or platesetters eliminate the need for having a seperate film-to-plate exposure system.

Computer-Aided Drafting or Design
The production of drawings and plans for Architecture and Engineering systems. CADD Systems are specialized workstations or high performance personal computers that employ CADD Software Packages and input devices such as graphic tablets and scanners.

Computerized Composition
An all-inclusive term for the use of computers to automatically perform the functions of hyphenation, justification and page formatting.

Conductivity
A property of fountain solutions that must be controlled along with pH.

Contact Print
A photographic print made from a negative or positive in contact with sensitized paper, film or printing plate.

Contact Screen
A halftone screen on film having a dot structure of graded density, used in vacuum contact with the photographic film to produce halftones.

Continuous Tone
An image which contains gradient tones from black to white.

Contone
Abbr for continous tone

Contract Proof
A color proof representing an agreement between the printer and customer regarding how the final product will look.

Contrast
The tonal gradation between highlights and shadows in an image. High contrast features extreme light and dark areas.

Copy
Any furnished material(typewritten manuscript, pictures, artwork, etc.) to be used in the production of printing.

Copy
Any furnished material(typewritten manuscript, pictures, artwork, etc.) to be used in the production of printing.

Copy Preparation
Directions for, and checking of, desired size and other details for illustrations, and the arrangement into proper position of various parts of the page to be photographed or electronically processed for reproduction.

Copy Preparation
Directions for, and checking of, desired size and other details for illustrations, and the arrangement into proper position of various parts of the page to be photographed or electronically processed for reproduction.

cotton paper
Paper made with a minimum of 25% cotton fiber.

courtesy response envelope
An envelope included in a mailing as a courtesy for the recipient to respond. It contains the mailing address to which the response is to be mailed. In not-for-profit mailings, it should also contain the appropriate bar code and FIM. Postage must be added.

Cover Paper
Any paper commonly used for the outside covers of brochures and books or for business cards. The basic sheet size for cover is 20 x 26.

CREF (Standards)
Computer Ready Electronic Files

Crop Marks
Lines printed at the edges of a sheet to indicate where it should be trimmed.

Cross Direction
The direcrtion across the grain. Paper is weaker and more sensitive to changes in relative humidity in the cross direction than the grain direction.

Curl
The curling that sometimes occurs along the edges of a sheet when the paper is exposed to extreme humidity changes or other physical stresses. This tendency is less likely in papers with recycled content because the paper fibers are shorter.

Cut Size
Writing and business papers that are cut to a finished size of 8.5 x 11, 8.5 x 14 or 11 x 17. Cut-size papers are usually packed in reams of 250 or 500 sheets depending on their weight.

Cutoff
The cut or print length.

Cutscore
A sharp edged knife, several thousandths of an inch lower than the cutting rules in a die, made to cut part way into the paper or board for folding purposes.

Cyan
Hue of a subtractive primary and a 4 color process ink. It reflects or transmits blue and green light and asorbs red light.

Cylinder Gap
The gap or space in the cylinders of a press where the mechanism for plate(or blanket) clamps and grippers(sheetfed) is housed

Dampening System
The mechanism on a press for transferring dampening solution to the plate during printing.

Dampners
cloth covered, parchment paper or rubber(bare-back) rollers that distribute the dampening solution to the press plate or ink roller.

Debossing
The opposite of embossing. Instead of a raised image, letters or images are depressed into a sheet with a die.

Deckle
The width of the wet sheet as is comes off the wire of a paper machine.

Deckle Edge
Feather-edged sheets that trace their origin back to early handmade papermaking when the pulp slurry seeped under the molding frame (deckle) causing the edges to feather.

Densitometer
A printer’s tool used to make sure that ink color stays accurate and consistent throughout a press run.

Density
The degree of darkness(light absorption or opacity) of a photographic image.

Descender
That part of a lower case letter which extends below the main body, as in “q”.

Desktop Color Seperation
A data file that standard defined to assist in making color seperations with desktop publishing systems. Using DCS five files are created: four color files, containing the cyan, magenta, yellow and black image data, and a composite color viewfile of the color image.

Desktop Publishing
Process of composing pages using a standard computer, off-the-shelf software, a device independent page description language like Postscript and outputting them on a printer of imagesetter.

Device Independent
The characteristic of a computer program or system that alllows different output devices to image the same file more or less the same.

Diazo – Offset Platemaking
A light-sensitive coating used on presensitized and wipe-on plates.

Diazo – Photography
A non-silver coating for contact printing.

Die Cutting
Cutting shapes into paper using a metal-edged die or laser. This may be for the purpose of creating a decorative pattern or for funtional needs such as making a pocket folder.

Die Stamping
An itaglio process for the production of letterheads, business cards, etc., Printing from lettering or other designs engraved into copper or steel.

Diffusion Transer ( Photography)
A system consisting of a photographic emulsion on which a negative is produced.

Diffusion Transfer (Plate Making)
A receiver sheet on which a positive of the image is transferred during processing.

Digital Color Proof
A digital proof is made directly from a digital file without the intermediate use of film. Digital proofs can be divided into two subgroups: preliminary and contract.

Digital Computer
A computer that processes information in discrete digital form.

Digital Plates
Printing Plates that can be exposed by lasers or other high energy sources driven by digital data in a platesetter.

Digital Printing
Printing by plateless imaging systems that are imaged by digital data from prepress systems.

Digitizer
A computer peripheral device that converts an analog signal into a digital device.

Dimensional Stability
Ability to maintain size; resistance of paper or film to dimensional change with change in moisture content or relative humidity.

Direct Screen Halftone
A halftone negative made by direct exposure from the original on an enlarger or by contact through a halftone screen.

Display Type
Type set larger than the text.

Dithering
A technique for alternating the values of adjacent dots to create the effect of intermediate values. Dithering refers to the technique of making different colors for adjacent dots or pixels to give the illusion of a third color.

Doctor Blade
A knife-edge blade pressed against the engraved printing cylinder which wipes away the excess ink from the non-printing areas.

DOS
Disk Operating System A program containing instructions for a computer to read and write data to and from a disk. An operating system (set of programs) that instructs a disk-based computing system to manage resources and operate peripheral equipment.

Dot
The individual element of a halftone. In AM screening the dots vary in size. In FM screening the dots are very small and usually all the same size.

Dot Compensation
Coated and uncoated papers tend to absorb ink in different degrees. To adjust for these varying absorption levels, printers alter the size of the dots in halftones and 4-color images to compensate for dot gain.

Dot Gain
Tendency for the dots of halftones and 4-color images to print larger than they are on the plate.

Download
Sending information to another computer or to output.

DPI
Dots per inch; the number of dots that fit horizontally and vertically in a one-inch measure. Generally, the higher the dpi, the sharper the printed image.

Draw-down
A term used to describe ink chemist’s method of roughly determining color shade. A small glob of ink is placed on paper and drawn down the edge of a putty knife spatula to get a thin film of ink.

Drop-out
Portions of the originals that do not reproduce, especially colored lines or background areas. (Often on purpose)

Drum Scanner
Uses photo multiplier tubes (PMT) and produces color seperations wiht higher resolution and dynamic range than CCD scanners.

Dry Trap
The process of applying a second layer of ink or varnish over a layer of dry ink that had been printed on a separate run through the press. Although more expensive, dry trapping provides a sharper image than wet trapping because the layer of ink or varnish isn’t diluted by a first layer of wet ink.

Dryer
A substance added to hasten drying.

Dummy
Blank sheet(s) of paper folded in the same manner as the final job and marked with page numbers and heads; when unfolded, can be used to show page and copy positions.

DuoTint
A one-color halftone printed over a screen of a second color halftone.

DuoTone
A two-color halftone of the same image created with two screens, two plates and two colors. Generally the full tonal range is printed in black and the middle range of tones are printed in the second color to create an effect that is deeper and richer than a one-color halftone.

Duplex
Printing on both sides of the paper in one pass through the printing device. Also referred to as �perfecting�.

Duplex Paper
Two sheets of paper that have been laminated together to feature a different color on each side.

Duplicating Film
A film for making positives from positives and negatives from negatives.

DVD
Digital Video Disk – An optical disk that can hold 4.7 GBs or more

Dynamic Range
Denisty difference between highlights and shadows of scanned subjects.

Electronic Dot Generation
A method of producing halftones electronically on scanners and prepress systems.

Electronic Printing
Any technology that repoduces pages without the use of traditional ink, water or chemistry or plates.

Electrophotography
Image transfer systems used in copiers to produce images using electrostatic forces and toners.

Electrostatic Assist
Use of electrostatic forces to help draw ink from gravure cells to reduce skips in highlights.

Electrostatic Plates
Plates for high speed laser printing using zinc oxide or organic photoconductors.

Electrotype
Duplicate relief plate used for letterpress printing.

Ellipitical Dot
In half-tone photography, elongated dots which give improved gradation of tones particularly in middle tones and vignettes – also chained chain dots.

Em
In composition, a unit of measurement as wide high as the point set . So named because the letter \”M\” in early fonts were usually cast on a square body.

Embossed Finish
Paper with a raised or depressed surface resembling wood, cloth, leather or other pattern.

Embossing
Pressing a relief image into a paper to produce a raised effect. The most sophisticated embossing is done with male and female dies and can be combined with foil stamping or printing.

EME Electromechanical Engraver
Machine used to make gravure printing cylinders.

Emulsion Side
The side covered with Silver Halide emulsion

En
One-half on the width of an em.

English Finish
A grade of book paper wiht a smoother, more uniform surface than machine finish.

Engraving
Technique developed by goldsmiths in the 15th century to transfer metal etchings onto parchment. Requires hand tooling or photochemically etching a design into a metal die. The die is covered with an opaque ink and wiped clean, leaving ink only in the “cut-in” design. Paper is pressed between the etched die and a mirror-image counter die, transferring ink onto the sheet to create an elegant raised impression.

EPS
(Encapsulated PostScript) Postscript file format expressly designed to be embedded in another postscript stream.

Etch
In Offset Lithography, an acidified gum solution used to desensitize the non-printing areas of the plate; Also an acid solution added to fountain water to help keep non-printing areas of the plate free from ink.

Expanded Type
A type whose width is greater than normal.

Exposure
The step in photographic or photomechanical processes during which light or other radiant energy produces the image on the photo-sensitive coating.

Fadeometer
An instrument used to measure the fading properties of inks and other pigmented coatings.

Fake Color
Producing a color illustration by using one image as a key and making the other seperations from it manually.

felt finish
Highly tactile and soft-textured felt finish papers are ideal for special techniques such as embossing and foil stamping.

Felt Side
The smoother side of the paper for printing. The top side of the sheet in paper manufacturing.

Fiber
The cellulose fiber, typically from cotton or wood, that is the main ingredient of paper.

File
A group of related information, such as text, graphics, page instructions, and oicture information stored on magnetic media.

FIM
Facing identification mark. A series of five or six vertical bars on the top right-hand side of the mailing panel used by automated postal equipment to identify, orient and separate reply mail.

finish
The surface characteristics of a sheet created by either on-machine or off-machine papermaking processes. Popular text and cover finishes include smooth, vellum, felt, laid and linen.

finishing
Operations performed after the job has left the press; common finishing operations are cutting, folding, binding and packaging.

Fixing
Chemical action following development to convert unexposed silver halide to a water soluble salt and make he image stable and insensitive to further exposure.

Flash Exposure
The supplementary expousre given to strengthen the dots in the shadow areas of negatives.

Flat
The assembly of of negatives on Goldenrod Paper or positives on film, ready for platemaking.

Flatbed Scanner
A device that scans images in a manner similar to a photocopy machine; the original art is placed facedown on a glass plate.

Fluorescent Inks
Inks that emit and reflect light. Generally, they are brighter and more opaque than traditional inks, but they are not color fast, so they will fade in bright light over time. their metallic content will also affect dot gain and trapping.

Flush Cover
A cover that has been trimmed to the same size as the inside text pages.

Flush Left (or Right)
Text set to line up at the left (or right).

Flush Paragraph
A paragraph with no indentation

Flying Paster
In Web Printing an automatic pasting device that splices a new roll of paper onto an expiring roll without stopping the press.

Focal Length
In Photography, the distance from the center of the lens to the image of an object at infinity. At the same size , the distance from copy to image is four times the focal length of the lens.

Fog
In Photography silver density in the non-image areas.

Foil Stamp
Foils made of matal or other materials available in various colors, typically combined with embossing or debossing. The foil is carried on a plastic sheet and transferred through a stamping process onto paper.

Folio
Page number

Font
Complete collection of text characters in a single design.

Font Embedding
Including fonts within a document file so that the document may be accurately rendered wherever it goes. The postscript page description language does not allow font embedding, so fonts must accompany a document as external files.

Forest Stewardship Council
FSC is an independent, non-governmental, not-for-profit organization established to promote the responsible management of the world’s forests. Established in 1993 as a response to concerns over global deforestation, FSC is widely regarded as one of the most important initiatives of the last decade to promote responsible forest management worldwide.

Form
In offset, the assembly of pages and other images for printing. In letterpress, type and other matter locked in a chase for printing.

Form Rollers
The rollers, either inking or dampening, which directly contact the plate on a printing press.

Format
The size, style, type page, margins, printing requirements, etc. of a printed piece.

Forwarding Service Requested
One of four ancillary service endorsements, this instructs the Postal Service to forward the mailpiece months 1 though 12 at no charge for first class and standard mail. Thereafter, the mail is returned to the sender. The return service is at no charge to first class; there is a weighed fee charged for standard mail. New address notification is provided only with return.

Fountain Solution
A solution of water, a natural or synthetic gum and other chemicals used to dampen the plate and keep non-printing areas from accepting ink.

Four-Color Printing
Printing with the three subtractive primary colors (yellow, magenta and cyan) and black.

Four-Up
Four of the same image on a single sheet of film or plate.

FPO
(For Position Only) Typically a low-resolution image positioned in a docuemtn to be replaced later with a higher resolution version of the same image.

Free Sheet
Paper Free of mechanical wood pulp.

French Fold
Paper fold made by first folding a sheet along its length and them making a second fold at a right angle to the first across the width.

Frequency Modulation Screening
A means of digital screening

Front End System
The workstation or group of workstations containing the application software for preparing pages of type and graphics.

FSC
Forest Stewardship Council – FSC is an independent, non-governmental, not-for-profit organization established to promote the responsible management of the world�s forests. Established in 1993 as a response to concerns over global deforestation, FSC is widely regarded as one of the most important initiatives of the last decade to promote responsible forest management worldwide.

Full Bleed
Printed image extending to all four edges of a sheet.

Gallery Proof
A proof of text copy before being made into pages.

Gamma
A measure of contrast in photographic images.

Gapless
Plate or Blanket Cylinders without gaps.

GATF (Graphics Arts Technical Foundation)

gathering
Finishing operation that involves assembling signatures in order next to each other.

Gear Streaks
Parallel streaks sppearing across the printed sheet at the smae interval as gear teeth on the cylinder.

Generation
Easch succeeding stage in reproduction from the original copy.

Gigabyte (GB) One Billion Bytes

Gloss Finish
Extra-smooth finish applied to paper to achieve even light reflectance, ink hold-out and uniform ink coverage.

Goldrenrod Paper
A specially-coated masking paper of yellow or orange color used by strippers to assemble and position negatives for exposure on plates.

Grain
Alignment of fibers in paper; affects how paper feeds through presses and printers, and how it folds.

Grain Long
Condition in which the majority of paper fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet.

Grain Short
Condition in which the majority of paper fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet.

Grammage
A term in the metric system for expressing the basis weight in paper. It is the weight in grams of a square meter of the paper expressed in g/m(squared)

Gray Balance
The dot values or densities of cyan, magenta and yellow that produce a neutral gray.

Gray Level
The number of gray values that can be distinguished by a color seperation filter – usually 2E8 or 256.

Gray Scale
Digital, or printed continuous, or stepped ramp of gray values from highlight to shadow.

Gripper Edge
The leading edge of paper as it passes through a printing press. Also, the front edge of a lithographic or wrap-around plate secured to the front clamp of a plate cylinder.

Gripper Margin
Portion of the lead edge of a sheet that is held in grippers as the sheet is transported through the press; this area cannot be imaged.

Grippers
Mechanical fingers that pull a sheet through the print unit of a press.

Groundwood Pulp
A mechanically-prepared wood pulp used in the manufacture of newsprint and publication papers.

GUI
A technical term for a system that lets users manipulate files by pointing to pictures(Icons) with a mouse or other pointing devices instead of having to type in commands.

Gum Arabic
Used in platemaking and on press to protect the non-printing areas of plates.

Gumming
The process of applying a thin coating of gum to the non-printing areas of plates.

Gutter
The blank space or inner margin from printing areas to binding.

Hairline Register
Register within plus or minus a half row of dots.

Halation
A blurred effect resembling a haol, usually occuring in highlight areas or around bright objects.

halftone
Binary image in which the illusion of a range of gray tones is created by varying the size or spacing of tiny dots of uniform density.

Hard Copy
The permanent visual record of the output of a computer or printer on a substrate.

Hard Dot
Halftone dot with litte or no fringe and prints with little or no dot gain or sharpening.

Hard Proof
A proof on paper or other substrate

Hard Proof
A proof on paper or other substrate as distingushed from software which is a program for operating hardware.

He/Ne
Helium-Neon red laser with wavelength of 632 nm.

Head Margin
The white space above the first line on a page.

Hickey
Defect on the press sheet caused by small particles of ink or paper attached to the plate or blanket.

High Contrast
A reproduction with high gamma in which the difference between light and dark is greater than in the original.

Highlight
The lightest or whitest parts in a photograph represented in a halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or the absence of dots.

Holdout
A property of coated paper with low ink absor[tion which allows ink set on the surface with high-gloss. Papers with too much holdout causes problems with the set-off.

Hot Type
Preparation of any printing form used to transfer multiple images from a raised surface; an example is Linotype utilizing hot lead.

HSV
Acronymn for hue, saturation and value (or brillance or luminance) – a color space used in some graphic programs.

Hue
The main attribute of a color which distinguishes it from other colors.

Hydrophillic
Water Receptive

Hydrophobic
Water Repellent

Hypertext
Links to other documents, Words or phrases in the document are defined so they can be selected and cause another document to be retrieved, opened, and displayed.

HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
The coding language that is used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web.

Image Assembly
Process of assembling pieces of film containing images that will be carried on the same plate and securing them on a masking sheet that will hold them in position during the platemaking process; much of the function is now being performed by computers.

Image Setter
A generic term that applies to film-output devices for type and graphics. The difference between an imagesetter and a typesetter is in the format of the data that has been converted from discrete-character raster lines to raster date using bitmaps.

Imaging Area
The maximum area on the film or plate that can be imaged. This is always less than the maximum dimensions of the paper because presses cannot image to the edges.

Imposetter
An imagesetter capable of outputing a film flat with 4, 8 or more pages in imposed position.

Imposition
The postioning of pages on a signature so that after printing, folding and cutting, all pages will appear in the proper sequence.

Impression Cylinder
The cylinder on a printing press against which the paper picks up the impression from the inked plate in direct printing, or the blanket in offset printing.

Indicia
An imprinted designation on a mailpiece that denotes postage payment. (For example, a permit imprint in place of a postage stamp.) An indicia must include the words “First Class”, “Presort First Class” (Prsrt First Class), “Presorted Standard” (PRSRT STD) or, if applicable, Nonprofit Organization (Nonprofit Org or Nonprofit) and below that “U.S. Postage Paid”. It also includes the city and state the permit is held and the mailer’s mailing permit number, except for company-style permits.

Ink Fountain
The device which stores and supplies ink to the ink rollers.

Ink Hold-Out
Resistance to the flow of ink pigments into the paper surface; good hold-out assures uniform halftone dots, intense color and crisp details.

Ink Mist
Flying filaments or threads formed by long low-track inks like newspaper ink.

Ink-Jet Printing
A plateless printing system that produces images directly on paper from digital data using streams of very fine drops of dye which are controlled by digital signals to produce images on paper.

Inkometer
An instrument for measuring the tack of printing inks.

Insert
A printed pieces prepared for insertion into a publication or another printed piece.

Inserting
Finishing operation that involves placing signatures in order one within another.

Internet
A network of networks that link workstations over telecomunication lines to share files and exchange e-mail internationally.

IR
Abbreviation for infrared radiation above 70 nm.

Iris43WIDE
The Iris43WIDE produces a double-sided digital proof after page impositioning. Prepunched media aligns on pin registration prior to imaging to enhance front-to-back registration accuracy. Low- and high-speed output provides the choice of speed versus resolution. The Iris43WIDE should be used as a contract proof only in “high-res” mode and only when color is not critical. At 360 dpi, it prints a 4-color, double-sided, 8-page signature in approximately 13 minutes. The Iris43WIDE replaces a blueline.

Iris4PRINT
The Iris4PRINT produces a single-sided proof of exceptional quality. It is used to proof color in conjunction with the Iris43WIDE, which is used to proof page impositioning. In the vast majority of jobs, these are the only proofs you will need. The Iris4PRINT replaces a matchprint

Italic
The style of letters that slant, in distinctition from upright, or roman letters. Used for emphasis within the text.

Jog
To align sheets of paper into a compact pile

JPEG
Image compression standard developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group. JPEG has become a standard image compression method allowing for compression ratios of approximately 10:1 before differences can be seen.

Justification
Technique of aligning composition in which the first and last letters of each line of type fall in vertical columns.

Justify
To space out lines uniformly to line up left and right.

Kerning
Subtracting space between two characters, making them close together.

Key
To code copy to a dummy by means of symbols, usually letters. Insertions are sometimes keyed in like manner.

Keyboard
The input device to input information directly into a typesetter, computer, workstation or, as a stand-alone unit, to record it in paper or magnetic tape.

Keyline
An outline drawing of finished art to indicate the exact shape, position and size for such elements as half-tones, line sketchs, etc.

Kilobyte (K or kb or KB)
1024 bytes, the most common measure of computer file length.

Kiss Impression
A very light impression, just enough to produce an image on the paper.

Kraft
A paper or board containing unbleached wood pulp (brown in color) made by the sulfate process.

Lacquer
A clear resin/solvent coating, usually glossy, applied to a printed sheet for protection or appearance.

Laid Paper
Paper with a pattern of parallel lines at equal distances, giving a ribbed effect.

Lamination
A plastic film bonded by heat and pressure to a printed sheeet for protection or appearance.

LAN – Local Area Network
Communication lin k in a localized area such as an office, building, complex of buildings or campus, with technology that provides a high-bandwidth, low-cost medium to which many computer nodes can be connected.

Laser – Light Amplification By Simulated Emission Of Radiation
The laser is an intense light beam with very narrow bandwodth used in digital-imaging devices to produce images by electronic impulses from computers or facsimile transmission.

Layout
The drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece.

Leaders
Rows of dashes or dots to guide the eye across the page. Used in Tabular work , programs, tables of contents, etc.

Leading
The distance between lines of type measured in points.

LED
Light Emitting Diodes that are used in place of lasers for some output systems.

Ledger Paper
A grade of business paper generally used for keeping records where it is subjected to appreciable wear so it requires a high degree of durablilty and permanence.

letterpress
A process that prints from a raised surface; letterpresses can also be used to number, score, perforate, foil stamp, emboss and die cut.

Letterspacing
The placing of additional spacing between each letter of a word.

Line Copy
Any copy suitable for reproduction without using a halftone screen.

Lithographic Developer
The material used to remove the unexposed coating on a plate.

Logotype
The name of a company or product in a special design used as a trademark in advertising.

Long Ink
An ink that has good flow on ink rollers of a press. If the ink is too long, it breaks up into filaments on the press, and causes flying as on a newspaper press.

Lower Case
The small letters in type, as distinguished from the capital letters.

M
Abbreviation for Mega, which is commonly used to mean one million. In computer terms, however M refers to the number 1,048,576 and is used to specify the amount of storage available on a disk or in memory. A 1 megabyte disk can record 1,048,576 bytes of data. Also, abbrevation for quantity of 1000.

Machine Coated
Paper which is coated one or two sided on a paper machine.

Machine Direction
Same as grain direction in paper.

Magenta
Hue of a subtractive primary and a four-color process ink. It reflects or transmits blue and red light and absord green light.

Magenta Screen
A dyed contact screen, used for making halftones.

Magnetic Storage
Any disc, film, tape, drum or core that used to store digital information.

Make-Ready
Unacceptable sheets that come off a press from the start of the run until the first good sheet.

Makeover
A plate that is remade.

Makeready
All work done to setup a press for printing.

Mask
An intermediate photographic negative or positive used to protect open or selected areas of a printing plate during exposure.

Master
A plate for a duplicating machine.

Matchprint
Film color proofing system manufactured by 3M.

Matte Finish
Dull Paper Finish

Measure
The width of type usually , usually exposed in picas.

Mechanical Pulp
Groundwood Pulp produced by mechnically grinding logs or wood chips. It is used mainly for newsprint and as an ingredient of base stock for lower grade publication papers.

Mechnical
A term for a camera-ready pasteup of artwork. It includes type, photos, line art, etc, all on one piece of artboard.

Megabyte
One million character codes on the computer. One million bytes or characters, often written MB or Mbyte. A unit of measurement equal to 1,024 Kilobytes, or 1,048,576 bytes.

Megahertz
Frequency equal to one million cycles per seconds. Measures bandwidth or analog electronic signals.

Menu
A method for selecting alternative functions displayed on a workstation screen. Selection via mouse, key or sequence of keys.

Metric System
A decimal system adopted by most countries for solid, liquid and distance measurements.

Middletones
The tonal range between highlights and shadows of a photograph or reproduction.

Modem (MOdulator, DEModulator)
A device that enables a computer to talk to other computers through phone systems by converting computer signals (data) into high-frequency voice communication signals and vice versa.

Moire
Undesirable image produced when two different, or randomly positioned screen patterns overprint.

Molleton
A thick cotton fabric simliar to flannel used on the dampening rollers of a offset press.

Monitor
A video screen on a workstation

Montage
Several photographs combined to form a composite illustration.

Mottle
The spotty or uneven appearance of printing, mostly in solid areas.

Mouse
A hand-held device that moves the cursor on a workstation by moving the device on a flat surface.

Mullen Tester
A machine for testing the bursting strength of paper.

Mylar
A polyester film specially suited for stripping positives becuase of it’s mechanical strength and dimensional stabilty.

Nanometer
A unit in which wavelengths of light and other radiant energy are expressed. One nanometer is one-billionth of a meter.

Negative
Film containing an image which the values of the original are reversed so that the dark areas in the subject appear light on the film and vice versa.

Network
Two or more computers which are linked and share resources to perform related tasks. Groups of computers that are connected to each other by communications lines to share information and resources.

Newsprint
Paper made mostly from groundwood pulp and small amounts of chemical pulp; used for printing newspapers.

Non-impact Printer
An electronic device like a copier, laser or ink-jet printer that creates images on a surface without contacting it.

Object-Oriented
An approach in drawing and layout programs that treat graphics as line and arc segments rather than individual dots. Also called vector oriented.

Oblong
A booklet or catalog bound on the shorter dimension.

OCR
Optical character recognition; technology enabling printed text to be scanned and interpreted yielding a text file.

Off Loading
Relieving the intensive amount of data proccessing associated with a specific application from the CPU, by performing those calculations in a dedicated or specialized processor.

Off-Press Proofs
Proofs made by photomechanical or digital means in less time and at lower cost than press proofs.

Offset
The process of using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate.

Offset Gravure
Printing Gravure by the offset principle. Generally done on a flexographic press by converting the anilox roller to a gravure image cylinder and converting the plate cylinder with a solid rubber plate.

Offset Press
Press design in which an image is transferred from a plate to a rubber blanket that transfers the image to the press sheet; offset technology allows plates to be right reading and gives higher-quality images that direct transfers.

Oleophobic
Oil repellent

Olephillic
Oil Receptive

Opacity
Obstruction of the passage of light through a sheet of paper.

Opaque
To paint out areas on a negative not wanted on the plate . The property which makes it less transparent.

Opaque Ink
An ink that conceals all color beanth it.

OPI (Open Press Interface)
An extension to Postscript tat automatically replaces low-res placeholder images with high-resolution images.

Orthochromatic
Photographics surfaces insensitive to red but sensitive to ultraviolet, blue, gree and yellow rays.

Outline Font
Font composed of characters represented by mathematical curves describing their outlines. PostScript and TrueType fonts are both outline font formats.

Overhang Corner
A cover larger that the pages it encloses.

Overlay
A transparent covering over the copy where color break, instructions or corrections are marked. Also, transparent or translucent prints which when placed one on the other form a composite picture.

Overlay Proof
A color proof produced with four dyed or pigmented overlay films.

Overprinting
Double printing; printing over an area that already has been printed.

Overrun
Copies printe in excess of the specified quantity.

Packing
Usually special paper used to underlay the image or impression cylinder in letterpress, or the plate or bkanket in lithography to get proper squeeze or pressure for printing.

Page Buffering
The ability to spool an entire image to disk and print in a continous motion.

Page Description Langage (PDL)
A computer language designed to describing how type and graphic elements should be produced by output devices.

Page Markup
The electronic assembly of pages elements to compose a complete page with all elements in place on a video display terminal and on film or plate.

Pagination
The process of performing page makeup automatically.

Palette
The collection of colors or shades available to a graphic system or program.

Panatone Matching Systems (PMS)
Color charts that have over 700 preprinted patches of blended inks, used to identify display or define special colors.

Panchromatic
Photographic film sensitive to all visible colors.

Pantone color
Color designated by name and/or number corresponding to a physical ink-on-paper standard manufactured by Pantone, Inc.

Paper Master
A paper printing plate used on an offset duplicator. The miage is made by hand drawing, typewriter or electrophotography.

parent sheets
Cut sizes in which a mill stocks and sells each paper.

Paste Drier
A type of drier, usually a combination of drying compound.

PC
Acronym for Personal Computer

PDF
(Portable document format) Format in which a file is saved that allows anyone to output the file without having the software application in which the file originated

PEFC
PEFC is the world’s largest forest certification organization. An international non-profit, non-governmental organization dedicated to promoting sustainable forest management, PEFC is the certification system of choice for small forest

Perfect Binding
Bookbinding method where leaves are glued together at the spine.

Perfecting
Printing on both sides of the paper simultaneously; synonymous with duplexing.

Perfecting Press
A printing press that prints both sides of paper in one pass through the press.

Permit Imprint
Printed indicia used in place of a postage stamp or meter, that shows postage prepayment through the mailer’s advance deposit account.

pH
A number used for expressing the acidity or alkalinity of solutions. A value of 7 is neutral in a scale ranging from 0 to 14. Solutions with values below 7 are acidic. Values above 7 are akaline.

Photoconductor
Materials used in electrophotography which are light sensitive when charged by corona.

Photograhic Developer
The chemical agent and process used to render photographic images visible after exposure to light.

Photomechanical
Pertaining to any platemaking process using photographic negatices or positives exposed onto plates or clylinders covered with photosensitive coatings.

Photomechanical Proof
Also called analog, the photomechanical system produces proofs through the intermediate use of film. The result is that dot size, shape or arrangement cannot be changed significantly between film and proof. The aim is to show you what is in the film with an attempt to predict the press results.

Photomultipler Tube (PMT)
Used in drum scanners to produce color seperations of high quality.

Photopolymer Coating
A plate coating consisting of compounds which polymerize on exposure to produce tough abrasion-resistant plates capable of long runs especially when baked in an oven after processing.

Pica
Printer’s unit of measurement used principally in typesetting. One pica equals approximately 1/6 of an inch.

Picking
The lifting of the paper surface during printing, it occurs when pulling force (tack) of ink is greater than the surface strength of paper.

PICT
A standard data format with which most older Macintosh illustrations are encoded.

Pigment
The fine solid particles used to give inks color, transparency or opacity.

Piling
The building up or caking of ink on rollers, plate or blanket; will not transfer readily. Also, the acculumlation of paper dust or coating on the blanket of offset press.

PIN Register
The use of accurately positioned holes and special pins on copy, film, plates and presses to insure proper register or fit of colors.

Pixel
Picture element; the smallest distinguishable part of any image.

Plate Cylinder
The cylinder of a press on which the plate is mounted.

Plate Setter
An image recorder which images directly on plate material. Platesetters currently available use lasers to expose or image paper, polyester or aluminum plates.

PMS
(Pantone matching system) Method for specifying and mixing inks from a numbering system listed in a swatch book. We can create a process build of the PMS spot color. Some PMS colors do not convert to CMYK exactly, however.

Point
Unit to measure type size and leading; 12 points equal 1 pica; 72 points equal 1 inch. Also the basic measure of paper thickness equal to 0.001 inches.

Poor Trapping
The condition in wet printing in letterpress and lithography when less ink transfers to previously printed ink to unprinted paper. Also called undertrapping.

Porosity
Quality of paper surface. Uncoated papers have open, porous surfaces; coated papers are more closed with lower porosity. Porosity relates to the degree to which the surface will hold out ink.

Portrait
Vertical orientation of a format as opposed to landscape horizontal orientation.

Postion Proof
Color proof for checking position, layout and/or color breakout of image elements.

Postive
Film containing an image in which black and light values are the same as the original. The reverse of negative.

PostScript
Graphics language marketed by Adobe; a de facto industry standard for page description.

PostScript font
Type font in the Adobe Type 1 format. PostScript language is used to describe all of the characters and how they should be rendered.

Preflight
Procedure of preparing an electronic file for output; includes checking that the file is correctly set-up, fonts are included and graphics are correctly linked.

Preliminary Proof
A preliminary proof is a representation of digital information that is not necessarily in final form.

Prepress
Print production process up to the point where plates are made or a data stream is sent directly to a digital printer.

Presensitized Plate
A metal, film or paper base plate that had been precoated with a light-sensitive coating.

Press Proofs
A proof of a color subject made on a printing press, in advance of the production run.

Pressure-Sensitive Paper
Materail with an adhesuve coating protected by a abcking sheet until used.

Print Quality
A term describing the visual impression of a printed peice. The properties of the paper that affects its appearance and the quality of reproduction.

Process Color
Use of ink with a translucent base that allows for the creation of many colors by overprinting only four (cyan, magenta, yellow and black)

Process Colors
The subtractive primaries; yellow, magenta and cyan, plus black in four-color process printing.

Process Lens
A highly corrected photographic lens with a flat field for graphic arts line, halftone and color photography.

Process Printing
The printing from a series of two or more halftone plates to produce intermediate colors and shades.

Program
Sequence of instructions for a computer.

Proof
The definition of a proof depends on the requirements of the job being printed. There may be several proofing systems at work on a single job. All proofs have different levels of cost and accuracy associated with them. In addition, depending on whether the workflow being used is conventional film or digital, proofs may be made from film or directly from digital files. In either case, a proof serves as a communication and quality control tool to preview image quality during the reproduction process.

Psychometer
A wet-and-dry bulb of hygrometer. Considered the most accurate of the instruments practical for industrial plant use for determining relative humidity.

Quality Control
Is a program of activities including customer service, process control and sampling with the objective of eliminating causes of process variablility now called Statisical Process Control.

Ragged Left
Type that is justified on the right margin and ragged on the left.

Ragged Right
Type that is justified on the left margin and ragged on the right side.

Raster Image Processor
A combination of computer software and hardware that controls the printing process by calculating the bitmaps of images and instructing a printing device to create the images. Most Postscript systems use a hardware RIP built into the printer.

Ream
Five hundred sheets of paper.

Reducers
Varnishes, solvents, oily or greasy compounds used to reduce the density of negative or postive images or the size of halftone dots.

Reflection Copy
Illustrative copy that is viewed and must be photographed by light reflected from its surface. Examples are photographs, drawings, etc.

Register
Fitting of two or more printing images in exact alignment with each other.

Register Marks
Target repeated in the same location on each plate of a multi-color job. When the targets overprint perfectly, the color is in register.

Relative Humidity (RH)
The amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere expressed as a percentage of the maxium that could be present at the same temperature.

Resolution
1. Ability of a scanner or digital camera to detect tone, color and detail. 2. Ability of a printing system to render tone, color and detail.

Respi Screen
A contact screen with 110 line screen ruling in the highlights and 220 line in the middle tones and shadows to produce a longer scale and smoother gradation of tones in the light areas of the copy.

Retrofit
Backwards integration of advanced capability into a device or program not orginally intended for that purpose.

Return Service Requested
One of four ancillary service endorsements, this instructs the Postal Service to return undeliverable mail to the sender with address notification or reason for nondelivery. There is no charge for first class. Standard mail is charged the appropriate single-piece first class rate.

Reverse
Technique of creating an image by using an open area in the midst of an ink area.

Reverse Angle Doctor Blade
Similar to doctor blade in gravure except used with much lighter pressure and a reverse angle on the anilox roll.

RGB
The three additive primaries: red, green and blue.

Rich Black
Black produced by overprint of cyan, magenta and yellow. Also called �composite black�.

Right-Angle Fold
A term used for two or more folds that are 90 angles to each other.

RIP
Raster image processor. Computer program that inputs high-level page descriptions and outputs low-level data streams that can be fed directly to a digital print engine to be rendered, or to a video board to be displayed.

Roller Stripping
A term denoting that the ink does not adhere to the metal ink rollers on a press.

Rub-Proof
An ink that has reached maximum dryness and does not mar with normal abrasion.

Run-Around
The term describing type set to fit around a picture or other element of the design.

Runnability
Paper properties that affect the ability of the paper to run on the press.

Running Head
A headline or title repreated at the top of each page.

Saddle Stitch
Metal stitch binding method used in magazine and catalog printing.

Safelight
The special darkroom lamp used for illuminiation without fogging sensitized materials.

Sans Serif
Type style characterized by vertical letter stress, uniform strokes and the absence of serifs.

Scaling
Determining the proper size of an image to be reduced or enlarged to fit an area.

Scan-A-Web
A rotating mirror arrangement where speed can be varied to match the speed of a press so the image on the paper can be examined during printing.

Scanner
Device that measures an image point by point and generates a signal related to the amount and type of light reflected from, or transmitted through, the original. This signal is often sampled and digitized by the scanner.

Score
Finishing operation that creases paper to enhance folding and reduce cracking.

Screen Angles
Angles at which the halftone screens are placed in relation to one another, to avoid undesirable moire patterns. A set of angles often used is: black 45 °, magenta 75 °, yellow 90 °, cyan 105 °.

Screen Ruling
The number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.

Screened Print
A print with a halftone screen made from a halftone negative negative or by diffusion transfer.

Script
Type style characterized by a design that attempts to duplicate handwriting.

SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface)
Pronounced skuzzy, SCSI is an interface used to transmit digital data and to connect computers to periphals. An industry-standard interface for hard drives and other storage devices that allows for very fast transfers of information.

Scum
A film of ink printing in the non-image areas of a plate where it should not print.

Scumming
Offset press condition in which non-image areas of the plate accept ink.

Self Cover
Cover produced from the same paper as the body of a book.

Semi-chemical Pulp
A combination of of chemical and mechanical pulping with properties similar to wood pulp.

Sensitivity Guide
A continuous tone gray scale with numbered steps used to control exposures in platemaking and lithfilm photography.

Series
Variations within a family of type; common series are bold, extra bold, condensed, think, expanded and italic.

Serifs
One of three variables in alphabet design; refers to small strokes that project from top or bottom of main character strokes.

Server
A file server provides the data interchange between compatible peripheral devices on a local area network. Servers are identified by the type of resource they provide(e.g. disk server, file server, printer server, communication server)

Set
Ability of ink to stick to paper; properly set ink can be handled without smearing.

Set-Off
Transfer of excess ink from one sheet to another when press in overinked; also referred to as off-set.

SFI
Voluntary third-party forest certification began in the 1990s in response to market concerns about forest management and illegal logging, primarily in developing countries. The SFI program was launched in 1994 as one of the U.S. forest sector�s contributions to the vision of sustainable development established by the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Its original principles and implementation guidelines began in 1995, and it evolved as the first SFI national standard backed by third-party audits in 1998. Today, SFI Inc. is an independent, non-profit organization responsible for maintaining, overseeing and improving a sustainable forestry certification program that is internationally recognized and is the largest single forest standard in the world. The SFI 2010-2014 Standard is based on principles and measures that promote sustainable forest management and consider all forest values. It includes unique fiber sourcing requirements to promote responsible forest management on all forest lands in North America. SFI certification also extends to the market. When they see the SFI label on a product, consumers can be confident they are buying wood or paper from responsible sources � whether it is reams of paper, packaging or two-by-fours.

SGML (Standardized Generalized Mark-Up Language)
SGML is one of the newer languages for marking text for a variety of purposes, including typesetting and disk publishing. A well-designed SGML scheme enables the publisher to mark text just once for multiple uses.

Shadow Area
Dark area of a continuous-tone image or its halftone reproduction.

Sharpen
To decrease in color strength, as when halftone dots become smaller.

Sheet-Fed Press
Press that prints on individual sheets of paper rather than on paper from a roll.

Sheetwise
To print one side of a sheet of paper with one plate, then turn the sheet over and print the other side with another plate using the same gripper and opposite side guide.

Shingling
For large signatures the center or gutter margin is varied according to the position of the page in the signature and the bulk of the paper.

Short Ink
An ink that is buttery and does not flow freely.

Show-through
The undesirable condition is which the printing on the reverse side of the sheet can be seen through the sheet under normal lighting conditions.

Side Guide
A guide on the feed board to position as it feeds into the front guides before entering the impression cylinder.

Signature
A large printed sheet or form after it has been printed, folded and trimmed down to page size.

Silhouette Halftone
A halftone of a subject with all of the background removed.

Sizing
The treatment of paper which gives it resistance to the penetration of liquids or vapors.

Skid
A platform support for a pile of cut sheets of paper.

Slitting
Cutting printed sheets or webs into two or more sections by means of cutting wheels on a press or folder.

Small Caps
An alphabet of SMALL CAPITAL LETTERS available in most roman typefaces approximately the size of lower-case letters. Used in combination with larger capital letters.

Smoothness
Measure of paper surface irregularities; affects the appearance of printing by affecting how the ink lays on the surface of the sheet.

Soft Dot
Halftone dot with considerable fringe which causes dot gain or sharpening in printing or photography.

Soft Ink
Descriptive of the consistency of paste inks.

Spectrophotometer
Instrument for measuring color for CIE color spaces. It is more accurate than most color colorimeters.

Spectrum
The Spectrum digital halftone proofing system provides consistently accurate proofs. Its Squarespot thermal imaging produces solid density, tone curves and color that are consistent from proof to proof. Spectrum proofing delivers the highest proof-to-plate consistency in the industry by imaging proofs using the same input file, resolution line screen, screen angle, spot function and thermal imaging system used to image plates. The Spectrum allows you to select the receiver onto which the color media is imaged to enable you to see how the paper on which you will print affects the appearance of the printed piece. The Spectrum is superior to a matchprint in quality and accuracy.

Spiral Binding
A book bound with wires in spiral form inserted through holes punched along the binding side.

Spot
Smallest visible point that can be displayed or printed. The smallest diameter of light that a scanner can detect, or an imagesetter or printer can image. Dot should not be confused with spot.

Spot Color
Printed color other than black, but not one of the three process colors.

Static Neutralizer
An Aattachement designed to remove the static electricity from the paper to avoid ink set-odd and trouble with feeding the paper.

Step and Repeat
The procedure of mulitple exposure using the same image by stepping it in position according to a predetermined layout or program.

Stet
A profreader’s mark, written in the margin, signifying that copy was marked for correction should remain as it was.

Stochastic Screening
A digital screening process that converts images into very small dots (14-40 microns) of equal size and variable spacing. Second order screened images have variable size dots and variable spacing. Also called Frequency Modulation Screening.

Stock
Paper or other material to be printed.

Stone
In lithography formerly used as the plate material and present used by artists as an art medium. In letterpress, the bed on which metal type is leveled and locked up.

Stress
One of three variables in alphabet design; refers to distribution of visual “heaviness” or “slant” of the character.

Strike-on Composition
Type set on typewriter composing machines.

Strike-Through Varnish
Strike-through varnish is a technique in which a dull or matte varnish is applied on all areas of a coated sheet except for the areas that are intended to be glossy. Then, a high-gloss aqueous coating is flooded over the sheet. As it cures, the varnish strikes through the aqueous coating to achieve a dull finish wherever varnish was applied and the areas where the varnish was not applied appears glossy. This process is more cost-effective than a dry-trap varnish, but it does not achieve the same contrast.

Stripping
Process of assembling pieces of film containing images that will be carried on the same plate and securing them on a masking sheet that will hold them in position during the platemaking process; much of the function is now being performed by computers.

Stripping
In image assembly the positioning of negatives (or positives) on a flat to compose a page or layout for platemaking. In printing ink stripping on ink rollers prevented by plastic or copper coated steel rollers in the ink roller train.

Stroke
One of the three variables in alphabet design; refers to thickness of lines that form each character.

Substance
The weight in pounds of a ream (500 Sheets) of paper cut to the standard size (“17” x “22”) for business papers( bond and ledger). e.g. 20 pounds. Similar to basis weight of other grades of paper.;

Substrate
Any material that can be printed on, such as paper, plastic and fabric.

Subtractive Primaries
Yello, magenta and cyan, the hues used for prcoess color printing inks.

Sulphate Pulp
Paper pulp made from wood chips cooked under pressure in a solution of bisulphite of lime (calcuim bisulphate)

Supercalender
In papermaking a calendar stack, seperate from the papermaking machine, with alternate metal and resilient rolls, used to produce a high finish on paper.

Supercell
In digital halftone imaging a combination of subgroups of halftones dots that are handled as a single group.

Surprint
Exposure from a second negative or superimposed on an exposed image of a previous negative or flat.

Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Voluntary third-party forest certification began in the 1990s in response to market concerns about forest management and illegal logging, primarily in developing countries. The SFI program was launched in 1994 as one of the U.S. forest sector’s contributions to the vision of sustainable development established by the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Its original principles and implementation guidelines began in 1995, and it evolved as the first SFI national standard backed by third-party audits in 1998. Today, SFI Inc. is an independent, non-profit organization responsible for maintaining, overseeing and improving a sustainable forestry certification program that is internationally recognized and is the largest single forest standard in the world. The SFI 2010-2014 Standard is based on principles and measures that promote sustainable forest management and consider all forest values. It includes unique fiber sourcing requirements to promote responsible forest management on all forest lands in North America. SFI certification also extends to the market. When they see the SFI label on a product, consumers can be confident they are buying wood or paper from responsible sources � whether it is reams of paper, packaging or two-by-fours.

SWOP
Specifications for Web Offset Publication

Tack
In printing inks the property of cohesion between particles; the seperation force of ink needed for proper transfer and trapping on multicolor presses. A tackingy ink has high seperation forces and can cause surface picking or splitting of weak papers.

TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Set of protocols that standardizes the transmission of data over the Internet.

Terabyte(TB)
One trillion bytes

Text
the body matter of a page or book as distingushed from the headings.

Thermal Dye Sublimation
Like thermal printers except pigments are vaporized and float to desierd to proofing stock. Similar to Thermal Dye Diffusion Transfer.

Thermal Transfer Printers
These printers use a transfer sheet that carries ink in contact with the paper or transparency and a heated printhead driven by digital data that touches the transfer sheet to transfer images to the right points of on the page.

Thermo-Mechanical Pulp
Made by steaming wood chips prior to and during refining, producing a higher yield and stronger pulp than regular groundwood.

Thixotropy
False body in inks.

TIFF
Tagged Image File Format. A de facto standard format for raster images. Tiff supports binary, grayscale, RGB and CMYK images.

TIFF Tagged Image File Format
A flie format for graphics suited for representing scanned images and other large bitmaps. TIFF is a neutral format designed for compability with all applications. Tiff was created specifically for storing grayscale images and it is the standard format for scanned images such as photographs – now called TIFF/IT

Tile
Printing a big picture on a small printer in multiple panels that can then be assembled offline.

Tints
Various even tone areas of a solid color.

Tissue Overlay
A thin, translucent paper placed over artwork(mostly mechnicals) for protection; used to indicate color breaks and corrections.

Tolerances
The specifications of acceptable variations in register, density, dot size, plate or paper thinkness, concentration of chemicals and other printing parameters.

Tone Reproduction
The tonal reproduction between all the elements of a reproduction.

Toner
In digital printing imaging material also call digital inks, used in plateless printing systems like electrophotography, magnetography, ion or electron deposition and laser printers. In Ink dye used to tone printing inks, especially black.

Tooth
A characterisitic of paper, a slightly rough finish, which permits it to talke ink readily.

Transparency
Color positive file

Transparent Copy
Illustrative copy such as a color transparency or postive film through which light must pass in order for it to be seen or reproduced.

Transparent Ink
A printing ink which does not conceal the color beneath. Process inks are transparent so that they will blend to form other colors.

Transpose
Th exchange the posostion of a letter, word or line with another letter, word or line.

Trapping
Slight intentional overlapping of the edges of contiguous print elements to compensate for minor variations in color registration.

Trim Marks
Marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the page.

TrueType
Font standard. The alternative is PostScript. Font manufacturers produce both Truetype and PostScript fonts for Macintosh and PC platforms for a total of four different formats.

Twin-Wire Machine
A fourfrinier paper machine with two wires instead of one producing paper with less two sideness.

Two-Sheet Detector
A device for stopping or tripping the press when more than one sheet atempts to feed into the grippers.

Two-Sideness
In Paper the property denoting the difference in appearance and printability between its top (felt) and bottom (wire) sides.

Type Gauge
A printers tool calibrated in pica and points used for type measurement.

Type Style
Grouping of alphabet designs; the six main type styles are roman, sans serif, square serif, text, script and occasional.

UCA (UnderColor Addition)
Un color process printing, used with GCR, UCA is ink added in shadow areas to increase color saturation.

UCR (UnderColor Removal)
In process multicolor printing, color seperation films are reduced in color in neutral areas where all three colors overprint and the black film is increased an equivalent amount in these areas. This improves trapping and can reduce makeready and ink costs.

UGRA Test Target
A measure of image resolution and dot size on plates and in printing.

Uncoated Paper
Paper made of interlocking paper fibers without the addition of a binder that creates the printing surface.

Undercut
In printing presses, the difference between the radius of the cylinder bearers and the cylinder body, to allow for plate (or blanket) and packing thickness.

unit
In multicolor presses refers to the combination of inking plate and impression operations to print each color. A 4-color press has 4 printing units each with it’s own inking, plate and impression functions.

UNIX
A multiuser, multi-taking operating system that runs on a wide variety of computer systems from microto mainframe. UNIX was written in the C programming language. It is the most common operating system for serves on the internet being much preferred over Windows.

Upper Case
Capital letters in type.

UV Inks
Solventless inks that are cured by UV radiation. The are used extensively in screen printing, narrow web letterpress and flexograohic printing.

Vacuum Frame
A vacuum device for holding copy and reproduction material in contact during exposure.

Variable Data
Data that changes from page to page in a digital printing operation.

Varnish
Clear coat applied to an enamel sheet in-line (wet varnish) or in a separate press run after ink has dried. (dry varnish). May be flood-coat for protection or spot varnish for emphasis. Like aqueous coating, varnish is available in gloss and satin finishes. Unlike aqueous coating, varnish does not dry instantaneously. In all cases, except spot varnish, we recommend aqueous coating over varnish.

Varnish
A thin, protective coating applied to a printed sheet for protection or appearance. Also, in inkmaking it can be all or part of the ink vehicle.

Vehicle
In printing inks, the fluid component which acts as a carrier for the pigment.

Vellum Finish
A toothy finish which is relatively absorbent for fast ink penetration.

Vignette
An illustration in the the background fades gradually away until it blends inth the unprinted paper.

Viscosity
In printing inks a broad term excompassing the properties of tack and flow.

Wasup
The process of cleaning the rollers, form or plate, and sometimes the ink fountain of a printing press.

Waterless Plate
Printing plate with silicone rubber coating in non-image areas, that is printed on an offset press with dampening solutions.

Waterless Printing
In offset printing on a press using special waterless plates and no dampening system.

Watermark
Impression of wet paper during manufacturing with an image that is visible when the finished paper is held up to the light..

Web
A roll of paper used in web or rotary printing.

Web Tension
The amoutn of pull or tension applied in the direction of travel of a web of paper by the action of a web press.

Web-Fed Press
Press that prints paper fed from a roll rather than cut sheets.

Wet Trap Varnish
The process of printing a flood or spot varnish in-line on wet ink. Wet trapping allows for the most accurate registration.

Window
A single word or part of a word on a line by itself, ending a paragraph, or starting a page frowned upon in good typography.

Wire Side
The side of a sheet next to the wire in manufacturing; opposite from felt or top side.

Wire-O Binding
A continous doulbe series of wire loops run thru punched slots along the binding size of a booklet.

With The Grain
Folding or feeding paper into a press with the grain of the paper paraller to teh blade of the folder or the axis of the impression cylinder

Woodcut
An illustration in lines of varying thickness, cut in relief on plank-grain wood, for the purpose of making prints by a relief printing method like letterpress.

Word Processor
A typewriter connected to a computerized recording medum to input, edit and output digital text data. Examples: Word Perfect or Pages.

Work and Back
Procedure in which a sheet is printed first on the front and then flipped and printed on the back with a different image. The gripper edge remains the same. Also referred to as sheetwise.

Work and Tumble
Procedure in which multiple images are printed on one side of a sheet and the sheet is �tumbled� from gripper to back and the second side is printed using the opposite gripper, but the same side guide and plate. The procedure saves plates and make-ready.

Work and Turn
Procedure in which multiple images are printed on one side of a sheet and the sheet is turned from left to right and the same image is printed on the second side using a common gripper and plate, but the opposite side guide. The procedure saves plates and make-ready.

WORM (Write One Read Many Times
A type of optical memory device.

Wove Paper
Paper having an uniform unlined serface and a soft smooth finish.

Wraparound Plate
In rotary letterpress, a thin one-piece relief plate which is wrapped around the press sylinder like an offset plate. Can be used for direct or offset printing.

Wrinkles
Creases in the paper occurring during printing.

Writing Paper
Writing paper was originally a high-quality, watermarked paper associated with correspondence. Today it includes a wide range of qualities and uses, including 20# bond traditionally used for xerographic reproduction. The basic size for writing paper is 17 x 22.

Wrong Font
In proofreading the mark “WF” indicates a letter or figure of the wrong size or face.

X-Height
Distance from the base line to the top of a lowercase letter x in a given font; varies depending on font design. Also know as body-height.

Xerography
An electrophotographic copying process that uses a corona charged photoconductor surface, electrostatic forces and dry or liquid toner to force an image.

Yellow
Hues of a subtractive primary and a four-color process ink. It reflects red and green light and adsorbs blue light.